Scientists have named the top ten foods and nutrients that uniquely affect life expectancy. Six of them - upward, four - quite the opposite.
The authors of a scientific study, which recently published in the authoritative journal of the American Medical Association JAMA, came to the conclusion that every second death from cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus is associated with excessive consumption or, on the contrary, deficiency of certain nutrients or products.
The conclusion is simple: a gigantic number of deaths can be avoided by a very small amount of blood - by changing the diet.
WHAT IS USEFUL?
The absolute majority of people are experiencing a shortage of these extremely useful polyunsaturated fats. And it is their shortage that makes the most serious contribution to mortality from heart problems.
Omega-3 fatty acids are classified as essential. At the same time, they can only be ingested with food, but more often than not, they eat foods that are rich in them.
Everyone needs to remember that these substances are rich in seafood. In addition, they are abundantly present in vegetable linseed oil, which was once considered traditional in our country. And in walnuts, rapeseed oil, leafy greens.
Every day we must eat 250 mg of omega-3 with food. For this it is enough two or three times a week to eat mackerel, trout, salmon or sardines.
Nuts and Seeds
According to the degree of usefulness of these products, scientists have put in second place. Enough to eat them at 20 g daily. A small handful. In addition, nuts or seeds can be added to salads, bread (if you bake it yourself), muesli, cereal, even in soups.
And you can make a preparation: mix almonds, cashews and walnuts, eat handfuls daily. For example, as a snack between main meals. At the same time fill the deficit in a number of vitamins and minerals. The most useful seeds are pumpkin, sunflower, flaxseed, chia seeds (Spanish sage).
Every day a person needs at least 400 g of vegetables. Not so little. Very rarely does anyone ever succeed in complying with this standard, especially if one considers that potatoes that have been honored in Russia since the time of Peter the Great are not included in the list of healthy vegetables.
How to ensure that the vegetables were in your diet, if not abundant, then at least in accordance with the regulations?
There is a simple way - to choose vegetables by color. And make sure that these colors are constantly changing. In addition, make sure that vegetables (fresh and thermally processed) are on your plate at each meal.
Experts say that if you abide by this rule, then there is simply no room for something harmful on your plate. In addition, do not forget that the less processed the vegetables were, the more useful they are.
Eat every day at least 300 grams of fruit. In order not to forget about this, nutritionists advise not to seize basic meals with them (as is customary here), but to start the meal with them. For example, before the main breakfast you can eat a fruit salad, replacing them with juice or tea. This will not only increase the amount of fruit in the diet, but also improve digestion. In addition, fruit - the best snack during the day.
They should be in the diet 125 g per day. This is perhaps the most difficult point of the program: after all, whole-grain dishes in Russia are far from popular and not very accessible. But there is a way out. Instead of white flour, it is better to buy whole grain wheat or peeled rye - you can find it in the shops. Use it for making pancakes, baking, bread.
Today in the shops you can find whole grain bread, pasta made from durum wheat. Whole grain products also include cereals with minimal processing. Monastic oatmeal for breakfast, dark rice as a side dish for dinner ... They have a lot of fiber, which is so useful for digestion, maintaining the balance of intestinal microflora.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Scientists insist that they can replace not only harmful saturated fats, but also fast carbohydrates (buns, confectionery, etc.). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) should be at least 11% of your daily diet. They are present in vegetable oils, nuts and avocados. Scientific studies have shown that replacing saturated fat and carbohydrates with PUFA significantly improves health and prolongs life.
Try filling salad not sour cream (and, of course, not mayonnaise), but vegetable oil. The richest in these healthy fats are olive, rapeseed, safflower (oilcorn culture of the Astrov family) oils. Enough two tablespoons of butter a day.
“Only a balanced diet will prevent the main cause of premature death and improve the quality of life in old age,” says Oleg Medvedev, head of the National Research Center “Healthy Nutrition”, a professor at Moscow State University.
WHAT IS HARMFUL?
1. Salt (more than 2 g per day).
2. Processed meat (sausage, sausages, convenience foods, etc.).
3. Sweet drinks (including carbonated).
4. Red meat (no matter how it is cooked).
At the same time, the researchers' conclusion is unambiguous: about the same number of people die from a deficiency of nutrients in the diet, as much as from an overabundance of harmful ones. In other words, if you eat a lot of harmful products (which many Russians sin) or, on the contrary, use healthy in insufficient quantities, the effect will be the same.
- In principle, the basic rules of healthy eating for the heart is not so much. First, as many fruits and vegetables as possible. The second is as little animal fat and salt as possible. And the third is keeping the balance of calories, emphasizes Alexey Erlich, head of resuscitation and intensive care department of the city clinical hospital No. 29.